2016-08-02 10:51| 来源：环球雅思 | 点击量：次
第二篇 澳大利亚寻找可再生能源 有四家巨无霸公司考了6题 信息匹配(选项) 段落信息匹配
第三篇 native bees 正在遭遇威胁以及一些研究四道 y/n/ng 五道四选一 五道8选5
本次考试三篇文章全部都是旧题，第一篇 Traditional Farming System in Africa，农业类话题;剑桥真题中农业类话题可参考C7T4P2, C8T4P2和C10T2P1;第二篇Finding our way讲的是人类行为研究，可参考C5T1P2;第三篇Hierarchy and history language，讲的是语言学话题，可参考C5T1P1和C9T3P1。
题目：Traditional Farming System in Africa
Traditional Farming System in Africa
A By tradition land in Luapula is not owned by individuals, but as in many other parts of Africa isallocated by the headman or head woman of a village to people of either sex, according to need. Since land is generally prepared by hand, one ulupwa cannot take on a very large area; in this sense land has not been a limiting resource over large parts of the province. The situation has already changed near the main townships, and there has long been a scarcity of land for cultivation in the Valley. In these areas registered ownership patterns are becoming prevalent.
B Most of the traditional cropping in Luapula, as in the Bemba area to the
east, is based on citemene, a system whereby crops are grown on the ashes of tree branches. As a rule, entire trees are not felled, but are pollarded so that they can regenerate. Branches are cut over an area of varying size early in the dry season, and stacked to dry over a rough circle about a fifth to a tenth of the pollarded area. The wood is fired before the rains and in the first year planted with the African cereal finger millet (Eleusinecoracana).
C During the second season, and possibly for a few seasons more the area is planted to variously mixed combinations of annuals such as maize, pumpkins (Telfiriaoccidentalis) and other cucurbits, sweet potatoes, groundnuts, Phaseolus beans and various leafy vegetables, grown with a certain amount of rotation. The diversesequence ends with vegetable cassava, which is often planted into the developing last-but-one crop as a relay.
D Richards (1969) observed that the practice of citemene entails a definitedivision of labour between men and women. A man stakes out a plot in an unobtrusive manner, since it is considered provocative towards one' s neighbours to mark boundaries in an explicit way. The dangerous work of felling branches is the men' s province, and involves much pride. Branches are stacked by the women, and fired by the men. Formerly women and men cooperated in the planting work, but the harvesting was always done by the women. At the beginning of the cycle little weeding is necessary, since the firing of the branches effectively destroys weeds. As the cycle progresses weeds increase and nutrients eventually become depleted to a point where further effort with annual crops is judged to be not worthwhile: at this point the cassava is planted, since it can produce a crop on nearly exhausted soil. Thereafter the plot is abandoned, and a new area pollarded for the next citemene cycle.