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剑桥雅思阅读考点词之因果考点

2014-03-10 13:41| 来源:环球雅思 | 点击量:

摘要: 在众多的雅思阅读考点词中,表示“因果关系”出现的几率相对较大。下文,环球雅思老师于君星旨在对剑桥官方的阅读文章中含有“因果关系”的典型阅读考点加以分析。
雅思阅读文章的题材、题型都会因考试而异,但在每次考试中所出现的考点,相对较为稳定。在众多的雅思阅读考点词中,表示“因果关系”出现的几率相对较大。下文,环球雅思老师于君星旨在对剑桥官方的阅读文章中含有“因果关系”的典型阅读考点加以分析、解释,以期为考生复习提供有用的借鉴。
 
雅思阅读考点词:因果考点
    表示“因果关系”的考点在阅读中以不同的方式出现,主要有连词、介词、副词、动词。比较细致的划分为一下几点。
 
考点词一:连词
because, since, for, as, so ..that..., in that, now that, insomuch as
 
考点词二:介词
because of, due to, owing to, thanks to
 
考点词三:副词
because of ..., for this reason, on account of..., accordingly, as a result of ..., as a result, as a consequence, consequently, so, therefore, thus, hence, then, by reason of ......等
 
考点词四:动词
有些单词或者短语在阅读中根据语境的不同,既可以表示原因,也可以表示结果,如be linked to,  be associated with, be bound up with, be connected with, be correlated to,,,等。
 
但多数情况下,表示原因或者结果的词汇较为容易分辨。
1、原因
owe to, be attributed to, be indebted to, be responsible for, result from, stem from......
 
2、结果
cause, lead to, bring about, give rise to, engender, incur, contribute to, result in......
 
三、剑桥雅思阅读考点解析
在本文中,为了划分和讲解的方便,把题干中含有明显“因果”词汇的称之为显性考点;而把在题干中不含有明显的“因果”词汇而在原文定位到的信息是具有明显“因果”词汇的称之为隐性考点。
 
(一)显性因果考点
1、题干信息: This great variety of languages came about largely as a result of geographical _________. (Summary)
文章定位句:Isolation breeds linguistic diversity. (C4T2P2)
考点解析:great variety of languages=linguistic diversity; as a result of=breed, 答案为isolation。
 
2、题干信息:The growing importance of the middle class led to an increased demand for dictionaries. (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)
文章定位句:Beyond the practical need to make order out chaos, the rise of dictionaries is associated with the rise of English middle class, who...... . (C5T1P1)
考点解析:the rise of dictionaries=an increased demand for dictionaries; led to=is associated with; the growing importance=the rise of, 答案为:TRUE。
 
3、题干信息:Because of the language they have developed, human ......(未完成句配对)
A. react to their own thoughts.
B. helped create language in humans.
C. respond instantly to whatever is happening.
D. may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain.
......
 
文章定位句:......, but humans, who have developed a much more complicated internal life as a result of language, respond emotionally not only to their surroundings, but to their own thoughts. (C5T2P2)
考点解析:because of=as a result of; respond to=react to, 答案:A。
 
4、题干信息:This is largely due to developments in _______, but other factors such as improved ______ may also be playing a part. (Summary)
文章定位句:Certainly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advances. But there may be other contributing factors. Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the century...... . (C6T2P2)
考点解析:due to=in the face of; developments=advances, 第一个空格答案medical;improved=improvement,第二个空答案nutrition。
 
5、题干信息:Increases in some other illnesses may be due to changes in personal habits and to ______ . (Summary)
文章定位句:An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smoking habits and poorer air quality. (C6T2P2)
考点解析:be due to=reflect;personal habits=smoking habits;答案为poorer air quality。
 
6、题干信息:Long before the invention of radar, _______ had resulted in a sophisticated radar-like system in bats. (Sentence completion)
文章定位句:......, but all the world now knows that bats, or rather natural selection working on bats, had perfected the system tens of millions of years earlier, ...... . (C7T1P1)
考点解析:Long before=millions of years earlier; sophisticated radar-like system=had perfected the system.. 答案为:natural selection。
 
7、题干信息:Radar is an inaccurate term when referring to bats because ________ are not used in their navigation system. (Sentence completion)
文章定位句:It is technically incorrect to talk about bat "radar", since they do not use radio waves. (C7T1P1)
考点解析:inaccurate=incorrect; because=since; ___ are not used=they do not use radio waves.答案为radio waves。
 
8、题干信息:Feeding increasing populations is possible due primarily to improved irrigation systems. (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN)
文章定位句:Food production has kept pace with soaring populations mainly because of the expansion of artificial irrigation systems......(C7T1P2)
考点解析:feeding increasing populations=soaring populations, due to=because of, primarily=mainly, improved irrigation systems=expansion of artificial irrigation systems. 答案:YES。
 
9、题干信息:Modern technologies have led to a reduction in domestic water consumption. (YES/NO/NOT GIVEN)
文章定位句:......thanks to a range of new technologies that help to conserve water in homes and industry. (C7T1P2)
考点解析:modern technologies=new technologies; thanks to=have led to; a reduction=conserve; domestic water consumption=water in homes.答案是:YES。
 
10、题干信息:Problems in Nordic countries were excluded because they are outside the European Economic Community. (TRUE/FALSE/NOT GIVEN)
文章定位句:Those confined to particular geographical areas, such as countries bordering the Mediterranean or the Nordic countries therefore had to be discarded. (C7T3P3)
考点解析:excluded=discarded; because=therefore; 答案:FALSE。
 
11、题干信息:Cotton farmers in Central America began to use pesticides ...... (Multiple choice)
A. because of an intensive government advertising campaign.
B. in response to the appearance of new varieties of pest.
C. as a result of changes in the seasons and the climate.
D. to ensure more cotton was harvested from each crop.
文章定位句:The havoc that the 'treadmill syndrome' can bring about is well illustrated by what happened to cotton farmers in Central America. In the early 1940s, basking in the glory of chemical-based intensive agriculture, the farmers avidly took to pesticides as a sure measure to boost crop yield. (C8T4P2)
考点解析:use pesticides=took to pesticides; boost crop yield=more cotton was harvested. 答案D。
 
(二)隐性因果考点
1、题干信息:Yessis links an inadequate diet to _______. (sentence completion)
文章定位句:Few coaches, for instance, understand how deficiencies in trace minerals can lead to injuries. (C4T4P1)
考点解析:links……to……=……lead to……;inadequate diet=deficiencies in trace minerals。答案injuries。
 
2、题干信息:Paragraph A:
i. Disobeying FAA regulations
ii. Aviation disaster prompts action
iii. Two coincidental developments
iv. Setting altitude zones
v. An oversimplified view
......
(List of Headings)
文章定位句:An accident that occurred in the skies over the Grand Canyon in 1956 resulted in the establishment of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to regulate and oversee the operation of aircraft in the skies over the United States, which were becoming quite congested. (C8T1P2)
考点解析:an accident......=aviation disaster; prompt=resulted in,答案为ii。
 
3、题干信息:The use of pesticides has contributed to ...... (Multiple choice)
A. a change in the way ecologies are classified by agroecologists.
B. an imbalance in many ecologies around the world.
C. the prevention of ecological disasters in some parts of the world.
D. an increase in the range of ecologies which can be usefully farmed.
文章定位句:Apart from engendering widespread ecological disorders, pesticides have contributed to the emergence of a new breed of chemical-resistant, highly lethal superbugs. (C8T4P2)
考点解析:contributed to=engender; widespread=around the world; imbalance=disorders; ecological=ecologies,答案B。
 
4、题干信息:The length of time the process takes will affect the ______ of the corpus. (Summary)
文章定位句:The size of the corpus depends on practical factors, such as the time available to collect, process and store the data. (C4T3P3)
考点分析:the length of time=the time available..., affect=depend on,答案corpus。
 
    由此可见,针对雅思阅读中的题型,如果能够做到以下几点:一是正确的定位;二是把握考点;三是找到同义替换,答案也就一目了然了。而对于剑桥雅思阅读表示“因果关系”的考点词汇的准确识别,也是解题的关键。环球雅思祝你雅思阅读拿高分!

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