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剑桥雅思词汇详解:Word List13

2014-01-15 10:05| 来源:环球雅思 | 点击量:

摘要: 继List12之后为大家带来上海环球雅思名师李宁老师为大家整理的剑桥雅思词汇详解Word List13,希望对同学们复习迎考有所帮助噢!
继List12之后为大家带来上海环球雅思名师李宁老师为大家整理的剑桥雅思词汇详解Word List13,希望对同学们复习迎考有所帮助噢!

Physical anthropology, or biological anthropology as it is also called, concerns the study of human biology.
体质人类学是研究人类生物学的学科,也叫生物人类学。
 
anthropology  n.人类学
【释】 the scientific study of people, their societies
【派】 n. anthropologist; a. anthropological
【例】 British-born American anthropologist — Ashley Montagu — whose books,such as The Natural Superiority of Women (1953), helped popularize anthropology. 英裔美国人类学家蒙塔古•阿什利的著作,如《女性的自然优越性》(1953),促进了人类学的普及。
 
biological  a.生物学的;生物的
【释】 relating to the natural processes performed by living things
【派】 ad. biologically; n. biology / biologist
【例】 The school was a large biological laboratory. 这所学校有一个很大的生物实验室。
 
A mold might prove to be a successful antidote to bacterial infection.
霉菌可能被证实为一种针对细菌感染的有效的解药。
 
antidote  解毒剂,解药
【释】 a substance that stops the effects of a poison
【用】 antidote to
【例】 an antidote to a snakebite 蛇咬伤的解药
 
bacterial  a.细菌的;细菌引起的
【释】 caused by bacteria
【派】 n. bacteria
【例】 a bacterial infection 细菌感染
 
infection  n.传染;感染;传染病
【释】 a disease caused by bacteria or a virus that affects a particular part of your body
【用】 mild / slight / severe infection
【例】 This new type of infection is resistant to antibiotics. 这种新型的传染病对抗菌索有抗药性。
 
A biomechanics films an athlete in action and then digitizes her performance, recording the motion of every joint and limb in three dimensions.
生物力学拍摄一个运动员运动的过程,然后把这一过程数字化,三维地记录下她每个关节、每个肢体的动作。
 
biomechanics  n.生物力学
 
digitize  v.数字化
【释】 to put information into a digital form
【派】 a. digital
【例】 digitize maps数字化地图
 
motion  n.打手势,示意;移动;动作;提议 v.向……打手势
【释】 the process of moving or the way that someone or something moves
【用】 motion of; motion to do sth. / motion that; propose / put forward / table a motion
【例】 All her motions were graceful. 她的举止很优雅。
 
dimension  a.方面;(空间的)量度,维度;规模;重要性
【释】 a measurement in space, for example length, height etc.
【例】 A diagram represents things in only two dimensions. 图表只能二维地展现事物。
 
Egyptians lived in comparative security, prosperity and peace for thousands of years.
几千年来,埃及人住得相对比较安全、富有、和平。
 
comparative  a.比较的,相对的
【释】 that is quite good when compared to how comfortable, free, or rich etc. something or someone else is
【派】 ad. comparatively
【用】 comparative study / analysis; comparative beginner / newcomer
【例】 She majored in comparative literature. 她主修比较文学。
 
prosperity  n.繁荣,兴旺
【释】 when people have money and everything that is needed for a good life
【派】 a. prosperous
【用】 prosperity of
【例】 The Chinese people are endeavoring to build a harmonious world of common prosperity.中国人民始终为建立一个共同繁荣的和谐世界而努力。
 
The compiling of dictionaries has been historically the provenance of studious professorial types — usually be spectacled — who love to pore over weighty tomes and make pronouncements on the finer nuances of meaning.
有史以来,辞典的编纂工作大多出自勤奋好学的学家之手,那些人通常戴着眼镜,喜欢埋头于繁重的大部头书籍,对一些词条的意义上的微小差别都会做出宣告。
 
compile  v.汇编;编辑,编纂
【释】 to make a book, list; record etc, using different pieces of information, music etc.
【用】 compile sth. from / for sth.
【例】 The document was compiled by the Department of English. 这份文件是由英语系汇编的。
 
provenance  n.出处,起源
【释】 the place where something originally came from
【例】 I’m not quite clear about the provenance of the work. 我不太清楚这个作品的出处。
 
pronouncement  n.宣布,宣告,声明;决定
【释】 an official public statement
【派】 v. pronounce
【例】 the government’s pronouncement on birth control政府关于计划生育的声明
 
nuance  n.(色调、音调、意义等的)细微差别
【释】 a very slight difference in color, time, meaning etc.
【例】 Linguists explore the nuances of language. 语言学家探究语言的细微差别。
 
The survey suggested that complementary medicine is probably a better term than alternative medicine.
调查表明,补充性医疗这个名称或许比可替代药物与治疗更恰当。
 
complementary  a.补充的;互补的
【释】 making someone or something better or more attractive by emphasizing its good qualities or having qualities that the other person or thing lacks
【派】 v. complement; n. complementariness; a. complementarily
【例】 The computer and the human mind are complementary. 电脑和人脑是互补的。
 
alternative  a.两者择一的选择,供选择的事物
【释】 an alternative idea, plan etc. is different from the one you have and can be used instead
【派】 ad. alternatively
【用】 alternative approach / ways / methods; alternative medicine
【例】 an alternative approaches to learning mathematics 另外一种学习数学的方法
 
Disillusionment at the failure of many of the poor imitations of modernist architecture led to interest in various styles and ideas from the past and present,
从对现代建筑诸多失败的模仿中觉醒后,人们的兴趣转向从古到今的各种建筑风格和理念。
 
disillusionment  n.理想破灭,醒悟
【释】 to make someone realize that something which they thought was true or good is not really true or good
【派】 v. /n. disillusion; a. disillusioned
 
imitation  n.模仿,仿效
【释】 an attempt to imitate someone or something, or the act of doing this
【派】 n. imitator; v. imitate; a. imitative
【例】 Children learn language by imitation. 孩子通过模仿学习语言。
 
A bee’s brain is the size of a grass seed, yet in this tiny brain are encoded some of the most complex and amazing behavioral patterns witnessed.
蜜蜂的大脑与一个小草种子的大小相当,然而据观察,在这个微小的大脑里却有着一些最复杂、惊人的行为模式编码。
 
encode  v.把……编码
【释】 to put a message or other information into a code
【例】 Many satellite broadcasts are encoded so that they can only be received by people who have paid to see them. 卫星接收器具有编码,只有付费才能观看。
 
witness  n.目击者,证人 v.(为……)作证,目击 vt.目击
【释】 someone who sees an event and reports what happened
【用】 witness to; key / principal witness
【例】 According to witnesses, the robbery was carried out by two young men. 据证人陈述,有两名年轻男子参与抢劫。
 
Most falling foul of strict building regulations, have been forced to dismantle their individualistic homes and return to more conventional lifestyles.
严把居住环境关,拆除违章建筑,还百姓一个正常的生活环境。
 
foul  a.污秽的,邪恶的 v.弄脏;妨害;犯规
【释】 a foul smell or taste is very unpleasant
【派】 ad. foully; n. foulness
【用】 in a foul mood / temper
【例】 These toilets smell foul! 这些厕所太臭了!
 
dismantle  v.拆除……的设备,取消
【释】 to take a machine or piece of equipment apart so that it is in separate pieces
【例】 Jim dismantled the computer in three minutes. 吉姆用3分钟时间就把电脑拆卸了。
 
conventional  a.通常的,常见的;传统的,常规的
【释】 traditional and ordinary
【派】 n. conventionality / convention; ad. conventionally
【例】 We had a conventional opening ceremony. 我们举行了一个传统的开业典礼。
 
For example, one graphic illustration to which children might readily relate is the estimate that rainforests are being destroyed at a rate equivalent to one thousand football fields every forty minutes.
例如,孩子们或许很快就会看到这样一个生动的例证,据估计,热带雨林正在以每40分钟一千个足球场那么大的面积被破坏。
 
graphic  a.生动的;图表的
【释】 a graphic account or description of an event is very clear and gives a lot of details, especially unpleasant ones
【派】 ad. graphically
【例】 The graphic arts include lithography and calligraphy. 平面造型艺术包括平版印刷术和书法。
 
equivalent  a.等价的;相等的 n.相等物
【释】 having the same amount, value, purpose, qualities
【派】 equivalence
【用】 equivalent to
【例】 There is no English equivalent for “bon voyage” so we have adopted the French expression.(bon voyage表示一路顺风。)英语中没有关于“bon voyage”的相应表达,所以我们采用了法语的表达法。
 
This is much more holistic involving guesses, corrections.
加上猜测和校订就更全面了。
 
holistic  a.整体的,全面的
【释】 considering a person or thing as a whole, rather than as separate parts
【派】 ad. holistically
【用】 holistic medicine / treatment / approach
【例】 Dr. Smith gave us a holistic approach to art design. 史密斯博士给了我们一个整体的艺术设计方案。
 
correction  n.订正,改正;改正的地方
【释】 a change made in something in order to make it right or better
【派】 v. /a. correct; ad. correctly
【例】 The correction of the composition took me nearly an hour. 我用了将近一个小时才改完这篇作文。
 
What they discovered was experimental proof of the incredible power-to-weight ratio of birds.
他们发现了鸟类难以置信的动力重量比率这一实验证据。
 
incredible  a.难以置信的
【释】 impossible, or very difficult to believe
【派】 ad. incredibly
【例】 The latest missiles can be fired with incredible accuracy. 最新的导弹的准确性无与伦比。
 
ratio  n.比,比率
【释】 a relationship between two amounts, represented by a pair of numbers showing how much greater one amount is than the other
【用】 the ratio of sth. to sth.
【例】 The ratio of men to women at the meeting was 2: 1. 出席会议的男女比例是2比 1。
 
This looseness in molecular structure gives the material what engineers call tremendousformability” which allows technicians to tailor glass to whatever they need.
这种分子结构松散的特性使材料具有工程师们所说的巨大的“成形性能”,它使得技术人员可以随意地裁制玻璃。
 
looseness  n.松,松弛;漠然
【释】 not firmly fastened in place
【派】 ad. loosely; v. loosen
【例】 Such looseness throws discredit on the whole work. 这样松懈使整体工作受到怀疑。
 
molecular  a.分子的
【释】 the smallest unit into which any substance can be divided without losing its own chemical nature, usually consisting of two or more atoms
【派】 n. molecule
【例】 Molecular biology is the compulsory course for postgraduates.分子生物学是研究生的必修课。
 
tremendous  a.巨大的,惊人的
【释】 very big, fast, powerful
【派】 ad. tremendously
【例】 We got a tremendous surprise when he arrived. 他的到来使我们大吃一惊。
 
If they see potential clientele going elsewhere, they might want to be able to offer a similar service.
如果看到潜在的主顾去了其他的地方,他们有可能会希望自己能够提供类似的服务。
 
clientele  n.主顾,客户
【释】 all the people who regularly use a shop, restaurant etc.
【派】 n. client
【例】 The Disco nightclub has a very fashionable clientele. 迪厅的客人都很时尚。
 
The rediscovery of quick-and-easy-to-handle reinforced concrete and an improved ability to prefabricate building sections meant that builders could meet the budgets of commissioning authorities and handle a renewed demand for development quickly and cheaply.
快捷、简易的钢筋混凝土和预先制造建筑结构的能力的提高这一重新发现,意味着建筑者们可以达到委托管理局的预算,也会解决对快捷、便宜的房屋的再次需求问题。
 
reinforce  v.增援,加强
【释】 to give support to an opinion, idea,or feeling, and make it stronger
【派】 n. reinforcement
【例】 Our defences must be reinforced against attack. 我们必须加强防御设施,以抵御进攻。
 
prefabricate  v.预先制造;预先构思
【释】 to make the parts of a building, ship etc. in a factory in standard sizes, so that they can be fitted together somewhere else
【派】 a. prefabricated; n. prefabrication
【例】 a prefabricated home 一个预先组合的房子
 
Early cinema programmes were a mixture of items, combining comic sketches, free-standing narratives, serial episodes or animated film.
早期电影节目融合了连环画、自由叙述、连续片断或者动画片断。
 
sketch  n.素描;草图 v.描绘略图;写生
【释】 a simple, quickly-made drawing that does not show much details
【用】 sketch out
【例】 At the conference, he gave a sketch of recent happenings. 在会上,他简述了最近发生的事件。
 
episode  n.插曲;插话;情节
【释】 an event or a short period of time during which something specific happens
【派】 a. episodic
【例】 One of the funniest episodes in the book occurs in chapter 8. 最有趣的情节之一出现在书中的第8章。
 
animate  v.使……有生气,赋予生命
【释】 to give life or energy to something
【派】 a. animated; n. animation
【例】 A smile animated his face. 一丝笑容给他脸上增添了生气。
 
New developments now allow snapshots of all sorts of reasoning and problem-solving activities.
新的发展进程允许了解各种推理论证和解决问题的实际活动。
 
snapshot  n.快照;点滴的了解
【释】 a photograph is taken quickly and often not very skillfully
【例】 The text book gives us a snapshot of the UK culture. 本书展示了英国文化的面面观。
 
Superclean coal has the potential to enhance the combustion efficiency of conventional pulverized fuel power plants.
强力干净煤的潜力在于提高以粉末状燃料为能源的传统发电厂的燃料效率。
 
superclean  a.超净的
 
pulverize  v.磨成粉,粉碎
【释】 to crush something into a powder
【派】 n. pulverization
【例】 The seeds can be used whole or pulverized into flour. 种子可以整个地用,也可以磨成粉。
 
Having survived there for centuries, they believe their wealth of traditional knowledge is vital to the task.
经过几个世纪的洗礼,他们相信自己所拥有的传统知识的财富对这项任务至关重要。
 
survive  v.生存,生还
【释】 to continue to live after an accident, war, or illness
【派】 n. survival
【用】 survive on
【例】 The plants cannot survive in very cold conditions. 植物在非常冷的条件下不能生存。
 
vital  a.至关重要的;有活力的,充满生机的
【释】 extremely important and necessary for something to succeed or exist
【用】 vital to / for; it is vital (that); it is vital to do sth.
【例】 This matter is of vital importance to us. 这件事对我们来说至关重要。
 
A large pane of toughened glass in the roof of a shopping center at bishops walk shattered without warning and fell from its frame.
主教大街购物中心的屋顶上加固的玻璃片毫无征兆地突然从框上掉下来,砸碎了。
 
toughen  v.使……坚韧,使……顽固
【释】 to become tougher, or to make someone or something tougher
【派】 a. tough; ad. toughly; n. toughness
【例】 The government wants to toughen (up) the existing drug laws.政府想要加强现存的毒品法案建设。
 
bishop  n.主教
【释】 a priest with a high rank in the Christian religions, who is the head of all the churches and priests in a large area
【例】 The bishop conducted a number of confirmations at the service. 主教在仪式上为许多人施行了坚信礼。
 
shatter  v.打碎,破掉
【释】 to break suddenly into very small pieces, or to make something break in this way
【用】 shatter into
【例】 The explosion shattered the construction. 爆炸摧毁了建筑物。
 
They are developing unobtrusive sensors that will be embedded in an athlete’s clothes or running shoes to monitor heart rate.
他们正在开发一种不引人注目的传感器,它将被安放在运动员的衣服或跑鞋里,以测试其心率。
 
unobtrusive  a.不引人注目的;不多嘴的;客气的,谦虚的
【释】 not noticeable; seeming to fit in well with the background
【派】 ad. unobtrusively
【例】 She’s a quiet unobtrusive student, but always does well in the exam. 她是个沉默寡言、不引人注目的学生,但她的考试成绩总是很优异。
 
embed  v.使插入,使嵌入;深留
【释】 to put something firmly and deeply into something else, or to be put into something in this way
【用】 be embedded in sth.
【例】 Feelings of guilt are deeply embedded in his personality. 罪恶感深深地根植于他的个性中。
 
monitor  v.监视;监听;监督
【释】 to carefully watch and check a situation in order to see how it changes over a period of time
【例】 This instrument monitors the patient’s heartbeats. 这台仪器监听病人的心跳。

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