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摘要： 继List18之后为大家带来上海环球雅思名师李宁老师为大家整理的剑桥雅思词汇详解Word List19，希望对同学们复习迎考有所帮助噢！
Public infrastructure did not keep pace with urban sprawl.
【释】 the basic systems and services, such as transport and power supplies, that a country or organization uses in order to work effectively
【例】 A country’s economic infrastructure is essential for its further development. 一个国家的经济基础结构对其未来发展至关重要。
sprawl vi.躺卧（蔓延） n.躺卧（蔓延）
【释】 to spread the arms and legs out carelessly and untidily while sitting or lying down
【派】 a. sprawled / sprawling
【例】 I was sprawling full length on the cargo. 我伸展四肢平躺在装载的货物上。
It reveals the remarkable ingenuity and the great organizing ability of the ancient Egyptians.
【释】 skill and cleverness in making, inventing, or arranging things
【派】 a. ingenious; ad. ingeniously
【例】 The small boy has an extraordinary ingenuity of invention.小男孩具有非凡的发明才能。
A baby receives the genetic inheritance from its parents.
【释】 money or objects that someone gives other people when they die
【派】 v. inherit; n. inheritor
【用】 inheritance of sth. from sb.
【例】 The inheritance of her good looks is from her mother. 她的美貌来自母亲的遗传。
Noise is controlled by modifying equipment and by using insulation and sound enclosures around machinery.
【释】 when you insulate something, or when something is insulated; material which is used to insulate something
【派】 v. insulate; a. insulated / insulating; n. insulator
【用】 insulation from
【例】 The animal's thick fiir provides very good insulation against the cold weather. 动物厚厚的皮毛是抵御严寒的最好武器。
【释】 an enclosed area; when people enclose land
【派】 v. enclose; a. enclosed
【用】 enclosure of
【例】 The enclosure of public land meant that ordinary people couldn’t use it. 公共土地的圈围意味着普通人将不能使用它。
They opt for smaller classes, learn modem childcare techniques more quickly.
【释】 to make a choice, especially for one thing or possibility in preference to any others
【派】 n. option; a. optional
【用】 opt for / to
【例】 I think I’ll opt out of this game. 我不想参加这场比赛。
【释】 care for children provided by either the government, an organization or a person, while parents are at work or are absent for another reason
【例】 Since we both worked, childcare might be a problem. 我们俩都工作，没法照顾孩子。
Human beings started to show a preference for developing a new language.
【释】 when you like something or someone more than another person or thing; an advantage which is given to a person or a group of people
【派】 v. prefer; a. preferable
【用】 in preference to sth.
【例】 A window seat is my preference. 我喜欢靠窗的座位。
Causes can be pregnancy or heart disease.
【释】 having young developing inside the womb
【派】 a. pregnant
A representative sample of language, compiled for the purpose of linguistic analysis, is known as a corpus.
representative n.代表，众议员，典型 a.代表性的，代议制的；典型的
【释】 someone who speaks or does something officially for another person or group of people; being an example of what other members of the same group or type are like
【派】 v. represent; n. representation; a. representational
【用】 representative of
【例】 This case is representative of the attitudes of the police. 这个事例典型地反映了警方的态度。
Engineers are already trying to copy the gecko’s technique, but reptilian feet are not the only ones they are interested in.
【释】 belonging to or like a reptile
【派】 n. reptile
To this day, many of the Egyptian artistic creations display the wealth, splendor and talent of this great civilization.
【释】 great beauty which attracts admiration and attention
【派】 a. splendid; ad. splendidly; n. splendidness
【例】 The furniture in majestic splendor strikes people as gorgeous. 华丽的家具给人富丽堂皇的感觉。
【释】 human society with its highly developed social organizations, or the culture and way of life of a society or country at a particular period in time
【派】 v. civilize; a. civilized
【例】 Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world.中国文明是世界上最古老的文明之一。
The AIS unveiled the jackets for endurance athletes.
【释】 to remove a curtain-like covering from a new statue, etc. at a formal ceremony in order to show the opening or completion of a new building or work of art
【例】 She unveiled her plan of reform. 她首次公开了她的改革计划。
【释】 the ability to keep doing something difficult, unpleasant or painful for a long time
【派】 v. endure; a. endurable / enduring
【例】 He came to the end of his endurance. 他忍无可忍了。
There were also increasing audiences for films which were artistically more adventurous.
【释】 connected with art or artists
【派】 a. artistic
【例】 My daughter is artistically inclined. 我女儿生性爱好艺术。
【释】 willing to take risks and try new ideas; enjoying being in new, exciting situations; including new and interesting things, methods and ideas
【派】 n. adventure / adventurer / adventurism
【例】 Many teachers would like to be more adventurous and creative.许多教师愿意更加进取，更加有创造性。
He noted that this distinctive asymmetry in the human population is itself systematic.
【释】 with two halves, sides or parts which are not exactly the same in shape and size; without symmetry
【派】 a. asymmetric; ad. asymmetrically
【例】 information asymmetry信息不对称
【释】 using a fixed and organized plan
【派】 ad. systematically; v. systematize; n. system
【例】 This problem cries out for a long-term，open-minded, systematic search. 这个问题十分需要长期的、不带偏见的、系统的探索研究。
Assertiveness training for pupils who are liable to be victims is worthwhile.
【释】 expressing opinions or desires strongly and with confidence, so that people take notice
【派】 a. assertive; ad. assertively
【例】 Her assertiveness was starting to be seen as arrogance. 她的自信开始被认为是自负了。
【释】 likely to do sth.; legally responsible for paying the cost of sth.; likely to be punished by law for sth.
【派】 a. liable; n. liability
【用】 be liable for; be liable to do sth.; be liable to
【例】 We’re all liable to make mistakes when we’re tired. 人在疲劳时都可能犯错。
【释】 important, enjoyable, interesting, etc.; worth spending time, money or effort on
【派】 a. worth / worthy / worthless
【用】 be worthwhile to do / doing sth.
【例】 It is worthwhile writing all the facts out. 把全部的事实写出来是值得的。
There are branches around the world and 57 reciprocal clubs world-wide.
【释】 a local office or shop / store belonging to a large company or organization
【例】 The supermarket has branches all over the country. 这家超市在全国各地都设有分部。
【释】 to behave or feel towards someone in the same way as they behave or feel towards you
【派】 v. reciprocate; n. reciprocity / reciprocation
【例】 They have a reciprocal loathing for each other. 他们互相憎恨。
The high standing of professionals、including doctors, has been eroded as a consequence.
professional n.内行，专家，专业人业 a.职业的，专业的
【释】 a person who has great experience and high professional standards; related to work that needs special training or education
【派】 n. profession; ad. professionally
【释】 to rub or be rubbed away gradually; to slowly reduce or destroy
【派】 n. erosion
【例】 The rocks have gradually eroded away. 岩石被逐渐侵蚀。
A seabed consisted of 29 meters of soft alluvial silt and mud deposits.
【释】 to be made of or formed from something
【派】 n. consistency; a. consistent; ad. consistently
【用】 consist of sth.
【例】 A university consists of teachers, administrators and students. 大学由教师、行政人员和学生组成。
【释】 consisting of earth and sand that has been left by rivers, floods, etc.
【例】 Alluvial plains can be found in this country henes and hare. 冲积平原在这个国家到处可见。
The policy should be developed through consultation rather than imposed from the government.
【释】 a meeting to discuss something or to get advice; when you discuss something with someone in order to get their advice or opinion about it
【派】 v. consult; a. consultative / consulting; n. consultant
【用】 in consultation of
【例】 He is in consultation and cannot come to the phone. 他在商议事情，不方便接电话。
【释】 to officially force a rule, tax, punishment, etc. to be obeyed or received; to force someone to accept something, especially a belief or way of living
【派】 n. imposition; a. imposing / imposed
【用】 impose on
【例】 The present trouble was imposed on him. 目前的困难是强加在他身上的。
Some countries developed distinctive national cinemas.
【释】 something that is distinctive is easy to recognize because it is different from other things
【派】 a. distinct; ad. distinctly; n. distinction / distinctiveness
【例】 The book is said to have distinctive features. 据说这本书特色鲜明。
Two-thirds of them exceeded the guidelines.
exceed v.超过，胜过，越出 vt.超过，胜过
【释】 to be greater than a number or amount, or to go beyond a permitted limit
【派】 a. exceeding / excessive; ad. exceedingly
【例】 The sales exceeded my expectation. 销售超出我的预料。
【释】 a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters
【例】 The guidelines lie down rules for dealing with traffic offence. 指导方针规定了处理违犯交通法规的规则。
To understand the initial shock is to understand the power and magic of cinema, the unique, hypnotic quality that has made film the most dynamic.
【释】 of or at the beginning
【派】 ad. initially; u initialize / initiate; n. initiation
【例】 His initial reaction was one of shock. 他最初的反应是震惊。
【释】 caused by hypnosis
【派】 v. hypnotize; n. hypnotism / hypnotist / hypnosis
【例】 The story read before bedtime has hypnotic effect. 睡前读的那个故事有催眠效果。
【释】 of or relating to energy or to objects in motion or characterized by continuous change, activity or progress
【派】 ad. dynamically
【例】 The present economy needs a dynamic market. 目前经济需要一个有活力的市场。
The artwork is often marvelous, but the pictures make the language redundant.
【释】 extremely good, wonderful
【派】 n. / v. marvel
【例】 This will be a marvelous opportunity for him. 这对他可是千载难逢的机会啊。
【释】 not needed or useful
【派】 a. redundant; n. redundancy; ad. redundantly
【例】 The essay has too many redundant words. 这篇论文有很多废话。
For both men and women, running was good for our health and they received no monetary reward.
【释】 relating to the money in a country
【派】 n. money
【例】 She was in complete charge of all monetary matters affecting the household. 她全权负责一切有关家务的财政事宜。
reward n.报酬，酬谢，赏金 v.奖赏，酬谢
【释】 something given in exchange for good behaviour or good work
【派】 a. rewarding
【用】 reward for / with
【例】 It is unfair that he gets very little in reward for his hard work. 他工作很辛苦，报酬却很少，这是不公平的。
It may be overly optimistic, which could turn out to be pessimistic.
【释】 the tendency to be hopeful and to emphasize the good part of a situation rather than the bad part
【派】 n. optimism / optimist; ad. optimistically
【用】 be optimistic about
【例】 in an optimistic mood; optimistic plans; took an optimistic view 持乐观的心态；乐观的计划；持乐观见解
【释】 the tendency to emphasize or think of the bad part of a situation rather than the good part, or the feeling that bad things are more likely to happen than good things
【派】 n. pessimism / pessimist; ad. pessimistically
【用】 be pessimistic about / over
【例】 This is a too pessimistic view. 这个观点太悲观了。
The design of these tombs developed into the stepped pyramid.
【释】 a solid object with a flat square base and four flat triangular sides which slope toward each other and meet to form a point at the top
【派】 a. pyramidal
【例】 The Pyramids were among the seven wonders of the world. 古埃及大金字塔是世界七大奇观之一。
They import goods from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market.
【释】 to buy
【派】 n. purchaser / purchasing
【例】 He purchased this stamp at an auction. 他在拍卖会中购得这枚邮票。
【释】 belonging or relating to the home, house or family
【派】 v. domesticate; ad. domestically; n. domesticity
【例】 Her domestic troubles have ended. 她的家庭烦恼结束了。